VCP4 Exam Blueprint Study Notes

VMwarlogo Section 1 – Plan, Install and Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi

Objective 1.1 — Install VMware ESX/ESXi on local storage Knowledge


Objective 1.2 – Upgrade VMware ESX/ESXi Knowledge


Objective 1.3 – Secure VMware ESX/ESXi Knowledge


Objective 1.4 – Install VMware ESX/ESXi on SAN Storage Knowledge


Objective 1.5 – Identify vSphere Architecture and Solutions Knowledge


Section 2 – Configure ESX/ESXi Networking Objective 2.1 – Configure Virtual Switches Knowledge


Objective 2.2 – Configure vNetwork Distributed Switches Knowledge


Objective 2.3 – Configure VMware ESX/ESXi Management Network Knowledge


Section 3 – Configure ESX/ESXi Storage Objective 3.1 – Configure FC SAN Storage Knowledge


Objective 3.2 – Configure iSCSI SAN Storage Knowledge


Objective 3.3 – Configure NFS Datastores Knowledge


Objective 3.4 – Configure and Manage VMFS Datastores Knowledge


Section 4 – Install and Configure vCenter Server Objective 4.1 – Install vCenter Server Knowledge


Objective 4.2 – Manage vSphere Client plug-ins Knowledge


Objective 4.3 – Configure vCenter Server Knowledge


Objective 4.4 – Configure Access Control Knowledge


Section 5 – Deploy and Manage Virtual Machines and vApps Objective 5.1 – Create and Deploy Virtual Machines Knowledge


Objective 5.2 – Manage Virtual Machines Knowledge


Objective 5.3 – Deploy vApps Knowledge


Section 6 – Manage Compliance Objective 6.1 – Install, Configure and Manage VMware vCenter Update Manager Knowledge


Objective 6.2 – Establish and Apply ESX Host Profiles Knowledge


Section 7 – Establish Service Levels Objective 7.1 – Create and Configure VMware Clusters Knowledge


Objective 7.2 – Enable a Fault Tolerant Virtual Machine Knowledge


Objective 7.3 – Create and Configure Resource Pools Knowledge


Objective 7.4 – Migrate Virtual Machines Knowledge


Objective 7.5 – Backup and Restore Virtual Machines Knowledge


Section 8 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting and Alarm Management Objective 8.1 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for ESX/ESXi Hosts Knowledge


Objective 8.2 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for VMware FT and Third-Party Clusters Knowledge


Objective 8.3 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for Networking Knowledge


Objective 8.4 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for Storage Knowledge

  • Identify storage contention issues
  • Identify storage over-commitment issues
  • Identify storage connectivity issues
  • Identify iSCSI software initiator configuration issues
  • Interpret Storage Reports and Storage Maps


Objective 8.5 – Perform Basic Troubleshooting for HA/DRS and VMotion Knowledge

  • Explain the requirements of HA/DRS and VMotion
  • Verify VMotion functionality
  • Verify DNS settings
  • Verify the service console network functionality
  • Interpret the DRS Resource Distribution Graph and Target/Current Host Load Deviation
  • Troubleshoot VMotion using topology maps
  • Troubleshoot HA capacity issues
  • Troubleshoot HA redundancy issues


Objective 8.6 – Create and Respond to vCenter Connectivity Alarms Knowledge


Objective 8.7 – Create and Respond to vCenter Utilization Alarms Knowledge


Objective 8.8 – Monitor vSphere ESX/ESXi and Virtual Machine Performance Knowledge


VCP on vSphere™ 4 Certification Overview

VMWare VMware offers world-class certification programs to ensure and validate the technical competencies and expertise needed to install, manage, deploy and support VMware software. Recognized by the industry, VMware certifications are available for three distinct skill levels on the current version of our software VMware vSphere 4 and VMware vCenter Server 4.

Whether you are advancing your current position or looking for new opportunities, to be competitive in today’s IT job market, you will want to develop and demonstrate your technical expertise in virtual infrastructure. Read about our different programs and take your first step towards gaining the in-depth skills and industry recognition offered by VMware Certifications.

Now we see the VCP on vSphere™ 4:

How can I become a VCP on vSphere™ 4

There are four possible paths to acheive VCP on vSphere™ 4

  1. If you are NEW to VMware
    • Attend the VMware vSphere™ 4: Install, Configure, Manage course; attend the VMware vSphere 4: Fast Track course or attend the VMware vSphere: Troubleshooting course.
    • Take and pass the VCP on vSphere™ 4 exam
  2. If you are currently a VCP on VMware Infrastructure 3
    • VCPs on VI3 must attend the VMware vSphere 4: What’s New class, then take and pass the VCP4 exam in order to upgrade.
  3. If you are currently a VCP on ESX 2.x
    • Follow Path 1.
  4. If you are not a VCP on VI3, but have attended one of the prerequisite classes (Install & Configure; Deploy Secure & Analyze; or Fast Track).
    • Attend the VMware vSphere™ 4: What’s New course.
    • Take and pass the VCP on vSphere™ 4 Exam.

View File for Additional Details (VCP on vSphere 4 paths 4.29.09.pdf)

How many questions are on the exam?

There are 85 questions on this exam.

How much time will I have to complete the exam?

The exam is 90 minutes long. Your total seat time will be 105 minutes. 15 minutes are used for a survey and agreements.

For those in countries where English is not a national language, an automatic 30 minutes time extension will be granted. Please confirm this with Pearson VUE before beginning your exam.

What if I don’t pass the exam?

You can attempt the exam again. There is a 7 day waiting period between attempts. Each attempt will require a new payment. Once you pass the exam you will not be able to take it again.

What is covered on the VCP4 Exam?

Please review the exam blueprint.

View File for Additional Details (VMware Certified Professional on vSphere 4 Blueprint 8.13.09.pdf)

What is the passing score for the VCP4 exam?

The passing score for the VCP4 exam is 300. The exam is scored on a scale of 100 to 500.

When will the VCP4 exam be available?

The exam is now available through Pearson VUE!

PMP Practice Questions – Project Management Fundamentals

What is a Project ?

Project is a temporary endeavor undertaken to create a unique product or service.

  • Projects are unique.
  • Projects are temporary in nature and have a definite beginning and ending date.
  • Projects are completed when the project goals are achieved or it.s determined the project is no longer viable.
  • A successful project is one that meets or exceeds the expectations of your stakeholders.

How Unique ?

  • Product characteristics are progressively elaborated.
  • The product or service is different in some way from other product or services.

How Temporary ?

  • Has a definite beginning and end and not an ongoing effort.
  • Ceases when objective has been attained.
  • Team is disbanded upon project completion.


Building a road is an example of a project. The process of building a road takes a finite amount of time, and produces a unique product.

Operations on the other hand are repetitive. Generating bills every month, and broadcasting news everyday are examples of operations.

Subprojects are components of a project that often contracted out.

What is Project Management?

Project Management is the application of knowledge, skills, tools and techniques to project activities to meet project requirements.

Project management is accomplished through the use of the processes such as:

  • Initiation
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Controlling
  • Closing

Project managers or the organization can divide projects into above phases to provide better management control with appropriate links to the ongoing operations of the performing organization. Collectively, these phases are known as the project life cycle which we would see in next chapter.

Project managers deliver projects while balancing the following constraints:

  • Scope
  • Schedule
  • Quality
  • Resources
  • Customer Satisfaction
  • Risk

These all are so intertwined that a change in one will most often cause a change in at least one of the others

For example:

  • If time is extended, the cost of the project will increase.
  • If time extended with the same cost then quality of the product will reduce.
  • If scope is extended then cost and time will also extend.

Changes to any of these legs sets off a series of activities that are needed to integrate the change across the project.

What is Program Management ?

A program consists of a related group of projects and Program management is the process of managing multiple on going projects. An example would be that of designing, manufacturing and providing support infrastructure for an automobile make.

Program management involves centrally managing and coordinating groups of related projects to meet the objectives of the program.

In some cases Project Management is a subset of Program Management. The project manager may report to the program manager in such cases. A portfolio consists of multiple programs.

What is Portfolio Management ?

A portfolio is a collection of projects or programs and other work that are grouped together to facilitate effective management of that work to meet strategic business objectives.Organizations manage their portfolios based on specific goals.

Senior managers or senior management teams typically take on the responsibility of portfolio management for an organization.

Portfolio management encompasses managing the collections of programs and projects in the portfolio. This includes weighing the value of each project, or potential project, against the portfolio’s strategic objectives.

Portfolio management also concerns monitoring active projects for adherence to objectives, balancing the portfolio among the other investments of the organization, and assuring the efficient use of resources.

Why do we need Project Management?

  • Exponential expansion of human knowledge
  • Global demand for goods and services
  • Global competition
  • Team is required to meet the demand with quality and standard.
  • Improved control over the project
  • Improved performance
  • Improved budget and quality

Project Management Skills:

Many of the tools and techniques for managing projects are specific to project management. However, effective project management requires that the project management team acquire the following three dimensions of project management competencies:

  • Project Management Knowledge Competency: This refers to what the project management team knows about project management.
  • Project Management Performance Competency: This refers to what the project management team is able to do or accomplish while applying their project management knowledge.
  • Personal Competency: This refers to how the project management team behaves when performing the project or activity.

Interpersonal Skills Management:

The management of interpersonal relationships includes:

  • Effective communication: The exchange of information
  • Influencing the organization: The ability to “get things done”
  • Leadership: Developing a vision and strategy, and motivating people to achieve that vision and strategy
  • Motivation: Energizing people to achieve high levels of performance and to overcome barriers to change
  • Negotiation and conflict management: Conferring with others to come to terms with them or to reach an agreement
  • Decision Making: Ability to take decision independently.
  • Political and cultural awareness: Important to handle various personal and professional issues.
  • Team Building: Ability to create a productive team.

What is PMBOK ® Guide?

PMBOK ® Guide is the bible for Project Management. It stands for Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK ® Guide) . There are nine knowledge areas defined in PMBOK ® Guide, which are as follows

  • Project Integration Management
  • Project Scope Management
  • Project Cost Management
  • Project Time Management
  • Project Risk Management
  • Project Quality Management
  • Project HR Management
  • Project Communication Management
  • Project Procurement Management

Each Knowledge area has further Processes. There are a total of 42 processes. Each process has following three important parts.

  • Inputs
  • Tools & Techniques
  • Outputs

The PMBOK primarily covers each of the processes and its inputs, outputs and related tools and techniques.

Subsequent chapters will explain each process, its inputs, tools and techniques and outputs (ITTO) required.

Further the discipline of Project Management has five process groups.

These are:

  • Initiation
  • Planning
  • Execution
  • Control
  • Closure

Each process is part of one of these five project phases. It is important to know the process group for each of the 42 processes.

Prerequisites and Application for the PMP Certification

The PMP exam is offered by PMI as a computer test.

During four hours of testing time, 200 multiple-choice questions have to be answered. Each question has 4 answer options, out of which one is right. 175 of these 200 questions are scoring, the other die 25 questions are undergoing a test by the candidates.

Participants have to answer app. 75% (?, estimated number, the actual passing score is no more communicated by PMI) correctly, following a weighted scoring process.

The test result is assessed immediately at the end of the session. Candidates who do not pass on the first attempt have an option to repeat the test.

Exam Locations

The exams are performed at Prometric Testing Centers, which are available in many countries. Please see the Prometric website to locate a center nearby.

Exam Languages

The exam language is English.

PMI provides aids (translations on a mouseclick) for the following languages:

– German               – Korean

– French                 – Mandarin-Chinese

– Hebrew               – Portuguese (Brazil)

– Italian                  – Russian

– Japanese           – Spanish

Exam Times

The exam date can be appointed at a convenient time during normal working hours.


  1. Download PMP Credential Handbook
  2. Online application at

Exam costs


Please see pages 4 and 5 of the PMP Credential Handbook.

A brief overview can also be found here.

PMP Certification Exams Overview

Project Management Professional (PMP) is certification administered by Project Management Institute (PMI), USA. The PMP designation following your name tells current and potential employers that you have demonstrated a solid foundation of Project Management Knowledge.

The PMI’s salary survey has found that, in the United States and other countries, PMP certified Project Managers are being offered at least 10% more than those without this certification.

Pre-Requisite Qualification:

Here is the pre-requisite qualification and experience to appear for the examination:

  • A bachelor’s degree from a globally equivalent university.
  • A minimum of 4500 hours of project management experience in last three years.


  • A high school graduate from a globally equivalent college/university.
  • A minimum of 7500 hours of project management experience in last five years.


  • Candidate has obtained 35 contact hours of project management education from a registered education provider.

Required supporting documents

  • Education Background certificates
  • Experience verification Forms(s) which can be a proof of the management experience.
  • 35 Contact hours of Project Management Education meeting above criteria.

NOTE: Candidates can satisfy the requirement related to 35 Contact Hours of Education – Professional Development Units (PDUs), by successfully attending a training, course or workshop sessions through PMI’s Global Registered Education Provider. 1 Hour of training is equivalent to 1PDU.

PMP Certification Expenses

Here is the structure of the expenses you would have to beer to get this prestigious certificate.

  • Fees to earn 35 PDUs vary country to country and Education Provider to Education Provider. It may vary from $300 to $5000.
  • Initial Certification Fees:
    • If you are a member of PMI then this fees will be $405.00
    • If you are not a member of PMI then it will cost you $555.00
  • Re-Examination Fees:
    • If you are a member of PMI then this fees will be $275.00
    • If you are not a member of PMI then it will cost you $375.00

NOTE: If you are not able to qualify the examination in first attempt then you can give another attempts by paying re-examination fees which is mentioned above.

PMP Exams Structure

PMI has released a new version of Project Management Body of Knowledge (PMBOK)® and now certification exams will be conducted based on the new version.

This tutorial has been re-written based on new version of PMBOK, 4th Edition. All the required changes has been incorporated in old tutorial which was based on PMBOK third Edition v1.2

To become a PMP you would have to pass a rigorous multiple-choice examination. This exam is designed to objectively assess and measure your ability to apply project management knowledge in the following six domains:


This computer-based examination is administered globally with translation aids in 10 languages. You will have 4 hours time to answer 200 questions related to the above six domain.

Out of 200 questions there will be 25 pretest questions and they would not effect your scoring. These questions will be placed randomly in question paper and you would not be able to differentiate these questions from other live question.

Passing Score:

As such PMI does not disclose total passing score for any candidate but to pass the exams you need to give correct answer for 61% of live questions ( ie. 61% of 175 questions ). There is no negative marks with any wrong answer, so don’t leave any question without answer.

One more important note is that 60% questions will be based on your real experience. Books and tutorials definitely help but real experience is a must to pass this examination.

CompTIA Certifications Overview

image For individuals, attaining certifications means increased job security, additional career opportunities and increased credibility in the workplace. For businesses, hiring certified workers means higher customer satisfaction, increased productivity and lower employee turnover.

CompTIA A+
For entry-level IT technicians, the CompTIA A+ exam covers preventative maintenance, basic networking, installation, troubleshooting, communication and professionalism.

CompTIA Network+
For networking professionals, the CompTIA Network+ exam covers managing, maintaining, troubleshooting, operating and configuring basic network infrastructure.

CompTIA Security+
For experienced security professionals, the CompTIA Security+ exam covers system security, network infrastructure, cryptography, assessments and audits.

CompTIA Server+
For experienced IT professionals, the CompTIA Server+ exam covers areas such as RAID, SCSI, managing multiple CPUs and disaster recovery.

CompTIA Linux+
For experienced Linux professionals, the CompTIA Linux+ exam covers user administration, file permissions, software configurations and the fundamental management of Linux systems.

For entry-level printer and document-imaging technicians, the CompTIA PDI+ exam covers basic electromechanical components and tools, print engine and scan processes, color theory and networking.

For RFID professionals, the CompTIA RFID+ exam covers installation, maintenance, repair and troubleshooting of RFID products.

CompTIA Convergence+
For experienced convergence professionals, the CompTIA Convergence+ exam covers designing, implementing and managing voice and data networks.

For technical instructors, the CompTIA CTT+ exam covers classroom preparation, presentation, communication, facilitation and evaluation in both traditional classroom and virtual classroom environments.

For document imaging solutions sellers, the CompTIA CDIA+ exam covers planning, designing and specifying a document imaging management system.

CompTIA Project+
For project managers, the CompTIA Project+ certification covers the entire process of project management, including initiation, planning, execution, acceptance, support and closure.

CompTIA Exam Pricing (in US Dollars)

* CompTIA A+ Exam Prices: Non Member Pricing – $163.00
* CompTIA CDIA+, CTT (VBT), e-Biz+, Security+, RFID+ Exam Prices : Non Member Pricing – $251.00
* CompTIA Convergence+, CTT+ (CBT), DHTI+, HTI+, i-Net+, Project+, Linux+, Network+, Server+ Exam Prices: Non Member Pricing – $232.00CompTIA Corporate
Members receive discounts off the non member pricing.

CompTIA Registration
CompTIA exams may be taken at Pearson VUE or Thomson Prometric testing facilities.

CCNP Self-Study Resources from Cisco Press (New Exam)

CCNP® (Cisco Certified Network Professional) certification indicates advanced knowledge of networks. It is the second stage of the Network Installation and Support track, and it teaches the installation, configuration, and operation of LAN, WAN, and dial access services for medium-to-large networks with multiple protocols. The content emphasizes topics such as security, converged networks, quality of service (QoS), virtual private networks (VPN) and broadband technologies. Learn more about CCNP certification from Cisco Systems®.


Valid CCNA certification or any CCIE Certification.

New Exams Announced Jan. 25, 2010

The three required exams may be taken in any order.
642-902 ROUTE, Implementing Cisco IP Routing
642-813 SWITCH, Implementing Cisco Switched Networks

642-832 TSHOOT, Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (Available April 30, 2010)

New Exams

Materials Covering All CCNP Exams
CCNP Routing and Switching Official Certification Library
CCNP Routing and Switching Quick Reference
CCNP Routing and Switching Foundation Learning Library

CCNP 642-902 ROUTE Exam
CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Official Certification Guide
CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Cert Kit
CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Cert Flash Cards Online
CCNP ROUTE Portable Command Guide
CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Quick Reference
Implementing Cisco IP Routing (ROUTE) Foundation Learning Guide

CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Official Certification Guide
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Cert Kit
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Cert Flash Cards Online
CCNP SWITCH Portable Command Guide
CCNP SWITCH 642-813 Quick Reference
Implementing Cisco Switched Networks (SWITCH) Foundation Learning Guide

CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Official Certification Guide
CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Cert Kit
CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Cert Flash Cards Online
CCNP TSHOOT 642-832 Quick Reference
Troubleshooting and Maintaining Cisco IP Networks (TSHOOT) Foundation Learning Guide

PS: Send the Request to

CCNP Self-Study Resources from Cisco Press (Old Exam)

CCNP® (Cisco Certified Network Professional) certification indicates advanced knowledge of networks. It is the second stage of the Network Installation and Support track, and it teaches the installation, configuration, and operation of LAN, WAN, and dial access services for medium-to-large networks with multiple protocols. The content emphasizes topics such as security, converged networks, quality of service (QoS), virtual private networks (VPN) and broadband technologies. Learn more about CCNP certification from Cisco Systems®.


CCNA® certification is a prerequisite for CCNP certification.


The four required exams may be taken in any order.
642-901 BSCI, Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks
642-812 BCMSN, Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks
642-825 ISCW, Implementing Secure Converged WANs
642-845 ONT, Optimizing Converged Cisco Networks

CCNP 642-901 BSCI Exam
CCNP BSCI Portable Command Guide
Building Scalable Cisco Internetworks (BSCI) (Authorized Self-Study Guide), Third Ed.
CCNP BSCI Video Mentor, Streaming Video
CCNP BSCI Official Exam Certification Guide, Fourth Ed.
CCNP BSCI Quick Reference Sheets
CCNP Building Scalable Internetworks Lab Portfolio

CCNP 642-812 BCMSN Exam
CCNP BCMSN Portable Command Guide
Building Cisco Multilayer Switched Networks (BCMSN) (Authorized Self-Study Guide), Fourth Ed.
CCNP BCMSN Video Mentor, Streaming Video
CCNP BCMSN Official Exam Certification Guide, Fourth Ed.
CCNP BCMSN Quick Reference Sheets
CCNP Building Multilayer Switched Networks Lab Portfolio

CCNP 642-825 ISCW Exam
CCNP ISCW Portable Command Guide
CCNP ISCW Video Mentor, Streaming Video
CCNP ISCW Official Exam Certification Guide
CCNP ISCW Quick Reference Sheets
CCNP Implementing Secured Converged Wide-Area Networks Lab Portfolio

CCNP 642-845 ONT Exam
CCNP ONT Portable Command Guide
CCNP ONT Video Mentor, Streaming Video
CCNP ONT Official Exam Certification Guide
CCNP ONT Quick Reference Sheets
CCNP Optimizing Converged Networks Lab Portfolio

Materials Covering All CCNP Exams
CCNP Portable Command Guide Library
CCNP Video Mentor
CCNP Video Mentor, Streaming Video
CCNP Quick Reference 
CCNP Official Exam Certification Library

PS: Send the Request to

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